“Our destiny is in Europe, as part of the community. That is not to say that our future lies only in Europe, but nor does that of France or Spain or, indeed, of any other member. The community is not an end in itself.” – Margaret Thatcher in The Bruges Speech, 1988. It was in the ‘Bruges Speech’ that Margaret Thatcher’s views on Europe were brought to attention. Her speech highlighted five guiding principles; the first being an “active cooperation between independent sovereign states” which she said was the best way to build a successful European Community. The speech had celebrated the individualistic traditions, customs and identities ofRead More →

On August 18, 2016, Donald J. Trump tweeted, “They will soon be calling me Mr. Brexit.” Markets may agree. The uncertainty of November 8 vote may impact markets similar to the EU Referendum, which resulted in the Brexit. The vote to leave the EU went against most economists’ perpetual warnings of a Brexit. The former British Prime Minister, David Cameron, Bank of England and HM Treasury had repeatedly warned Britons that Brexit would raise global economic concerns for the UK. But the unanticipated Brexit result sent markets in a flurry. Loss of confidence sent the pound to its lowest levels since 1985, London equity marketsRead More →